The COVID-19 pandemic has brought the plight of the gig economy workforce into sharp focus. Some of this workforce is now busier than ever, delivering take-away food and online shopping to communities in lockdown. Others have been left high and dry by the collapse of travel which has frozen all activity for Airbnb, ride operators and similar providers. The contractual status of gig workers is such that they do not benefit from any of the emergency schemes introduced by governments such as furloughing or support for the self-employed which is generally linked to income declared for tax purposes over an extended period. Gig economy workers are among the most precarious of the precariat and the global pandemic has brought their plight onto the agenda of the media and, hopefully, governments.
By Antonio Paolo Russo, University Rovira i Virgili, SMARTDEST coordinator
The SMARTDEST project tackles the relation between tourism mobilities and the production of social exclusion in cities, with an ambition to contribute to the definition of a policy agenda for cities that takes tourism mobilities seriously, and that brings out the potential of social innovation from citizen engagement for more resilient communities.
While drafting the project proposal and then setting it in motion, the obvious concern of this consortium was the wide array of disruptions that are produced in a context of relentless growth of tourism activity in cities, and its increasing penetration in the citizens’ everyday. We therefore intended to situate our research in the rising debate on ‘overtourism’ and its effects, broadening its conceptual approach and empirical developments to the constellation of mobilities, communities and spaces that are enmeshed to contemporary travel and tourism in complex ways.
Yet, alas, in the verge of a few weeks the context we are studying has changed radically, in ways that could not be remotely imagined before.
The current COVID-19 pandemic, the subsequent measures of confinement to which a substantial part of the world population is subject, the temporary restructuring of work and family routines, and the foreseeable economic slump which will follow from the shock by ‘immobilisation’ of the global economy, present us with a very different future scenario than that of overcrowded streets, low-paid hotel workers and vulnerable families evicted to make space for short-term tourism rentals.
Today, the great societal (and academic) debate in relation to mobilities is whether we will ever go ‘back to normal’, if tourism as we knew it has a future, how to contain the social costs of this slump, and whether it is possible to effect a rapid transition towards ‘slower’, less mobility-dependent forms of economic and social organisation which are more resilient to the uncertain future that comes ahead. For the EU, this may mean that the policy concern for overtourism that had taken foot in the past years is likely to be rapidly overcome by the imperative of economic recovery.
Project to throw in the dustbin? Bad luck? Give back the EU money?
By all means, no. There are at least two main reasons why we consider that actually our research approach is the most adequate to tackle these questions, and offer a sound scientific contribution to the stage of recovery or adaptation to this new scenario.
The first reason stands in our epistemological approach. Moving from the baseline of the ‘mobilities paradigm’, and examining the relationships between tourism-induced urban transformations and the production of social exclusion from this position, allows us not just to analyse the pressure of the visitor economy and its social effects, but to engage with a much more ambitious program of research that takes in and connects:
- human mobility as an expression of democratic freedom, and leisure as a dimension of urban life that is inextricable from many others;
- the multiple and multiscale interconnections between the different manifestations of human mobility (e.g. tourism, migrations, commuting, leisurely walk, etc) and between these and the physical spaces that these contribute to produce and contest;
- the juxtaposition and interrelations of the highly mobile and the ‘less mobile’ or immobilised;
- the agencies, socio-technological regimes, ideologies and discourses that frame such relationships and promote or mitigate social exclusion.
In other words, if tourism – its practices and embodiments, the multiple flows of things, technologies, money and imageries that goes with it, and the marginalisation of sizeable sectors of the society from the benefits of a thriving visitor economy – could have been the context of development of the project until January 2020, the same conceptual concerns, the same empirical developments, and the same ambitions to find informed solutions to social exclusion apply in a non- or less-tourist world.
The current scenario, with the streets of tourist cities temporarily empty, thousands at risk of losing their job, and clean air, is one in which paradoxically social breeches are reproduced and reversed – those who can, comply with the new social norms of ‘good citizen’ and stay safely at home, while others are stuck with dangerously mobile jobs, uncomfortable dwellings, and dependency from the proximity with others. Even when this confinement scenario is relaxed, a new ‘regime of post-COVID mobility’ might be fathomed in which mobilities are promoted, regulated, and reified in vastly uneven ways.
Said this, it is still important to look back and have a structured, nuanced understanding of how the acceleration of tourism and related mobilities in the pre-COVID world may have widened social breeches, and which agencies and power coalitions would have made that possible. We definitely are going to do that. However, SMARTDEST will also look into the present and the future, clarifying how the analytics of mobilities also matters in an ‘immobilised’ world.
And this is precisely our second reason to stay on the ground. Our project foresees engagement with eight case studies of European cities variously interested by tourism-related physical and socioeconomic transformations which represent key challenges for social cohesion. SMARTDEST will not only examine what has gone on in such places until now and in the coming two years, but – as its title states – also aims at contributing to solutions or forms of mitigation to social exclusion that our research will relate to the production of tourist places. In a specific work-package, it will thus convene social actors – among which affected communities, groups at risk of exclusion, grassroots movements – together with economic and political agents to collaboratively design viable strategies by which forms of coping with social exclusion, smart forms of citizen collaboration, as well as small-scale planning innovations can be rescaled to the wider domain of urban policy and may be seen as valuable and implementable within the wider destination ecosystem.
In this light, our project is going to tackle these questions precisely in the stage of recovery (2021-2022), presumably following the current state of emergency. Our case study cities will find themselves in front a ‘recovery dilemma’: going back to normal – and mobilise public and private resources to achieve the recuperation of tourism jobs and economic activity lost in 2020, from which some of them are badly dependent –, or use this breakthrough moment as an opportunity for transition towards a destination environment that is less excluding, more just, more democratic; one that promotes quality of life and shared value over sectorial economic interest, that takes the effects of mobilities (social as well as environmental) seriously, and is prepared to mitigate them.
The temptation to stick to the trodden path will be strong: this is already being hailed, not only by corporate interests but also by policymakers faced with a sudden slump of the economy and employment. However, a return to the pre-COVID conditions – that in many destinations have been at the root of social issues – may not be even an option: as mentioned before, there are high chances that global mobilities and their local manifestations will change, albeit temporarily: ranging from the rights, practicalities and cost of travelling long-haul, to the attractiveness of the most affected destinations, or the effects of physical distancing on the viability of products and attractions.
It has been demonstrated by experience that sustainability transitions focusing on mitigating the impact of tourism mobilities are difficult, as they face lock-ins and pressures of all kinds, though the present scenario may offer a unique opportunity for realignment of societal and corporate interests. Besides, it is also not totally clear what this presupposes in the policy and planning sphere, although certain elements may be envisaged as essential, such a strengthening of the regulation capacity, the dignification and upgrade of work conditions, the concern for gender and intersectional unbalances, the promotion of citizen participation and their innovation capacity, the revision of governance mechanisms. However, whose interests will dominate in the recovery debate, whose rights will be put upfront, and who will be controlling and tapping from the sociotechnical machinery of innovation in mobility, are still moot points – and key discriminants in the effort to achieve more inclusive post-COVID cities.
In this sense, being able to contribute and inform this debate, that will necessarily take place in all the cities we will be studying in our project, is a fundamental challenge for SMARTDEST. Our ambition is that CityLabs will be a key arena where the post-COVID urban future is analysed, designed and shared, and this consortium is already taking steps to make that happen.
The pandemic mobility breach in Barcelona
A study of the Catalan newspaper El Periodico, published by journalist and scientific divulgator Michele Catanzaro, using data from the metropolitan Transport Authority of Barcelona, indicates that citizens from the poorest neighbourhoods have been using public transport three times more than the rest of the population during confinement. Low ownership rates of private transport among low-income citizens and impossibility to avoid commuting to jobs are factors cited to explain this trend. However, the map of the most mobile neighbourhoods also features some middle-class tourism-intensive neighbourhoods, whose high mobility rates might be tied to the temporary disappearance of the visitor economy in their neighbourhoods. As higher use of public transport hints at greater exposure to health hazard from contagion, it might be concluded, as indicated by some of the early SMARTDEST assumptions, that the immobilisation of the population (both resident and visiting) may have exclusionary effects as remarkable as those observed in regimes of hyper-mobility.
Access the article of El Periodico (in Spansh): https://www.elperiodico.com/es/sociedad/20200518/el-distanciamiento-va-por-barrios-7963976
by Alejandro González, GRATET-URV. May 2020
Cities are planning mobility transitions for encouraging cyclists and pedestrians to travel while respecting social distancing.
The capital of Lombardy, the region most hit by Covid-19 in Italy and among the most polluted regions in Europe, plans for a climate-friendly way out of the crisis. This initiative follows other big cities like Paris, London or Berlin, which are taking advantage of this global crisis in the hope of encouraging cycling and walking to transition to a “new normality” safely. As alternatives to a doctrine shock, policies oriented to mobility justice could provide a roadmap for other cities.
Milan has announced that 35km (22 miles) of streets will be transformed over the summer, with a rapid, experimental citywide expansion of cycling and walking space to protect residents as Covid-19 restrictions are lifted. The City Council wants to avoid the increase of pollution in the city during the stage of recovery, in which restrictions to avoid conglomerations in public transport are going to be implemented.
An unjust mobility system may well be related with the pandemic. Intercontinental transport is noted to have directly caused a rapid and global diffusion of the virus, that has subsequently provoked its collapse. But also, the high carbon automobility system may be one of the most important contributors to fatality. Other estimations suggest that more lives were saved due to the reduction in air pollution than those terminated by the virus. Therefore, reducing polluting cars from streets may offer more chances to combat new (corona)virus outbreaks in cities and to make them more resilient.
However, far from being a new normality, Milan was also announced the suspension of the LEZs of the city until 31st of May. Allowing all vehicles to enter, to circulate on public transport preferential lanes and all parking spaces are free for all. Another side of the coin, the coronavirus might have prepared scenarios for shocking and transition. Which one will impose? Will governments take from granted the social de-escalation? Will climate and health prioritise come up on top? A critical analysis is deserved during next months and years to unmask the politics of mobility justice and virus.
 BBC (2020 March 22) Coronavirus: Lombardía, la región más golpeada de Italia anuncia medidas más estrictas para frenar el avance del covid-19 Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-internacional-51994635
 Carlton, R. (2020 April 22) Paris to Create 650 Kilometers Of Post-Lockdown Cycleways. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/carltonreid/2020/04/22/paris-to-create-650-kilometers-of-pop-up-corona-cycleways-for-post-lockdown-travel/#6652f1ae54d4
 Harrabin, R. (2020 April 20). Coronavirus: Banning cars made easier to aid social distancing. BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-52353942.
 Versti, L. (2020 March 27) Neuer temporärer Radweg am Kurfurstendamm. Berliner Morgen Post. Retrieved from https://www.morgenpost.de/bezirke/im-westen-berlins/article228794619/Neuer-temporaerer-Radweg-am-Kurfuerstendamm.html
 Moreno, D. (2020 April 1) Naomi Klein: “La gente habla sobre cuándo se volverá a la normalidad, pero la normalidad era la crisis”. El Salto. Retrieved from https://www.elsaltodiario.com/coronavirus/entrevista-naomi-klein-gente-habla-volver-normalidad-crisis-doctrina-shock
 Laker, L. (2020 April 21). Milan announces ambitious scheme to reduce car use after lockdown. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/21/milan-seeks-to-prevent-post-crisis-return-of-traffic-pollution?fbclid=IwAR0Or0kro67QH_5dkHs4ldazmkvyJtMkQTZOCjdrlqSJa_gvfAio62ICsJA
 Pierce, B. (2020) Covid-19: wider economic impact from air transport collapse. IATA. Retrieved from https://www.iata.org/en/iata-repository/publications/economic-reports/covid-19-wider-economic-impact-from-air-transport-collapse/
 Carrington, D. (2020 April 20) Air pollution may be ‘key contributor’ to Covid-19 deaths – study. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/20/air-pollution-may-be-key-contributor-to-covid-19-deaths-study
 McMahon, J. (2020 Mar 16) Study: Coronavirus Lockdown Likely Saved 77,000 Lives In China Just By Reducing Pollution. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffmcmahon/2020/03/16/coronavirus-lockdown-may-have-saved-77000-lives-in-china-just-from-pollution-reduction/#2c8cf3c534fe
 Interview with Cittadini per l’Aira by email on 08/05/2020 by the author
The SARS-CoV-2 emergency has put into question recent patterns in international tourism. As a matter of fact, it may take some time before tourists are allowed to freely move around the globe again. Given the approaching summer, the tourism sector is increasingly concerned about whether, and eventually how, people could enjoy their holidays. Among other proposals to give new impetus to an industry severely affected by present-day forced immobility, tourism bubbles drew the attention of the SMARTDEST research team. In a nutshell: Australia and New Zeeland, which are on the right track to control the spread of the virus, started discussions around the possibility of creating a travel corridor – or “bubble” – to allow safe and healthy movements between these two countries. In other worlds, free movements would be restricted to tourists/residents of the neighbouring country only. As claimed by CNN, it’s not clear if and when this bubble could become a reality. Yet, the proposal is appealing to the point that Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz insinuated the possibility of establishing a corridor between Germany, Austria, and the Balkan Mediterranean regions, isolating de facto tourism destination in Italy or Spain. A situation worth monitoring since new temporary borders might engender long-lasting impacts.